Define anabolic and catabolic pathways

Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) (referred to as androstanolone or stanolone when used medically) can also be used in place of testosterone as an androgen. The availability of DHT is limited; it is not available in the United States or Canada, for instance, but it is available in certain European countries, including the United Kingdom , France , Spain , Belgium , Italy , and Luxembourg . [5] DHT is available in formulations including topical gel, buccal or sublingual tablets, and as esters in oil for intramuscular injection. [6] Relative to testosterone, and similarly to many synthetic AAS, DHT has the potential advantages of not being locally potentiated in so-called androgenic tissues that express 5α-reductase (as DHT is already 5α-reduced) and of not being aromatized into an estrogen (it is not a substrate for aromatase).

Laws and Penalties:  Concerns over growing illegal AAS abuse by teenagers, and many of the just discussed long-term effects, led Congress in 1991 to place the whole AAS class of drugs into Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).  Under this legislation, AAS are defined as any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to T (other than estrogens, progestins, and corticosteroids) that promotes muscle growth.  The possession or sale of AAS without a valid prescription is illegal.  Since 1991, simple possession of illegally obtained AAS carry a maximum penalty of one year in prison and a minimum $1,000 fine if this is an individual’s first drug offense.  The maximum penalty for trafficking (selling or possessing enough to be suspected of selling) is five years in prison and a fine of $250,000 if this is the individual’s first felony drug offense.  If this is the second felony drug offense, the maximum period of imprisonment and the maximum fine both double.  While the above listed penalties are for federal offenses, individual states have also implemented fines and penalties for illegal use of AAS.  State executive offices have also recognized the seriousness of AAS abuse and other drugs of abuse in schools. For example, the State of Virginia enacted a law that will allow student drug testing as a legitimate school drug prevention program (48, 49).

The Mesterolone hormone is not estrogenic. It does not aromatize and it carries no progestin nature. As a result, the side effects of Proviron will not include any related effects such as gynecomastia or excess water retention. Such adverse effects are impossible with this steroid. This will also greatly reduce the risk of high blood pressure as high blood pressure associated with anabolic steroid use is often due to extreme water retention. In fact, Proviron should provide an anti-estrogenic effect by preventing testosterone to estrogen conversion or at least tremendously slow it down.

Define anabolic and catabolic pathways

define anabolic and catabolic pathways

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