For many years, before modern methods had been developed, radical circumcision was the only treatment offered for tight foreskin. However, radical circumcision is now obsolete. It is more painful and has a more difficult recovery than the newer conservative treatments. Radical circumcision also destroys much functional tissue, results in severe loss of sexual sensation, and destroys normal male sexual-mechanical functioning. According to cost-benefit studies, radical circumcision is also the most expensive method of treating tight foreskin, but is still promoted by many medical doctors. Holman and Steussi provide us with an excellent description of this traditional but outmoded procedure. Choe and Kim provide a description and images of the traditional procedure.
Side-effects from the use of steroids are extremely common and can be quite significant. Most side-effects are reversible once the athlete stops usage although serious long-term side-effects and even death have occurred as a direct result of steroid use.
• Decreased sperm production and sex drive
• Increased aggression, irritability and mood swings
• Liver disorders
• Baldness (alopecia)
• Hypertension (high blood pressure)
• Raised cholesterol
• Gynecomastia (development of over-sized mammary glands in males)
• Menstrual irregularities (in women)
• Hirsuitism (excessive hair growth occurring in females which follows the pattern of male hair growth, . facial)
• Deepening of the voice
• Reduced immunity
• Possible development of tumors (wilm’s tumor, prostate carcinoma and leukemia have been reported, although a connection is not proven)
Remember, nothing is alleged to--or can have--happened to all of MLB over some one or two seasons: the claim is that PEDs were being used at a slowly but steadily increasing rate (and thus "distorting records") from very roughly 1980 through the present. Were that so, or anything like it, we would expect to see a clear long-term uptrend during this period. But we don't: we see a nearly flat line that, if anything, slopes slightly down. The "boost" just isn't there. But that doesn't seem to stop anyone from talking about it.