The coefficient of expansion is an important material and sheet property which describes its behavior under thermal changes. HDPE like most plastic products has a higher coefficient of thermal expansion than some common construction materials such as wood and concrete. The coefficient of thermal expansion for HDPE is not constant, but is of the order of % per degree centigrade change in temperature. This property must be accounted for in lining design and installation. There are a number of procedures that can be used to determine the coefficient of thermal contraction or expansion of a material for example, ASTM D2102 and D2259 for contraction, and D 1042 for expansion and dimensional changes. All of them subject the test specimen to a constant source of cold (or heat) and carefully measure the separation distance between two given initial locations. Some typical data are presented in Table. An example using this data in adding slack during the installation of a Geo.-membrane is given below.
ISO 9308-1:2014 specifies a method for the enumeration of Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) and coliform bacteria. The method is based on membrane filtration, subsequent culture on a chromogenic coliform agar medium, and calculation of the number of target organisms in the sample. Due to the low selectivity of the differential agar medium, background growth can interfere with the reliable enumeration of E. coli and coliform bacteria, for example, in surface waters or shallow well waters. This method is not suitable for these types of water.
CPP-mediation method: In the case of loading agents into RBCs, most of the methods discussed above showed limitations due to the possibility of disruption to membrane structure. A new encapsulating method to load proteins into RBCs was presented by Yang' group without altering the structure and/or function[ 43 ]. L-asparaginase was conjugated with a low molecular weight protamine based cell penetrating peptide (CPP) via disulfide bond. The CPP-protein conjugation can be easily uptaken by the cells and then release the protein by redox-responsive cleavage of disulfide bond. This method could be also applied to load liposomes, NPs, or micelles into intact RBCs for the treatment of various systemic diseases.