Soon after the famous record by Roger Maris was beaten, another baseball player, Jason Giambi and others came out to say they often used prohormones. The Congress was forced to convene a hearing after which it determined that steroids were not really a threat. Rather, it ruled out that it was the responsibility of professional sports organizations to supervise and regulate their use. The law was updated and an official definition of the term steroid was given as follow: an “anabolic steroid” means any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone (other than estrogens), progestins, corticosteroids, and dehydroepiandrosterone).
Steroid isolation, depending on context, is the isolation of chemical matter required for chemical structure elucidation, derivitzation or degradation chemistry, biological testing, and other research needs (generally milligrams to grams, but often more or the isolation of “analytical quantities” of the substance of interest (where the focus is on identifying and quantifying the substance (for example, in biological tissue or fluid). The amount isolated depends on the analytical method, but is generally less than one microgram.[pageneeded] The methods of isolation to achieve the two scales of product are distinct, but include extraction, precipitation, adsorption, chromatography, and crystallization. In both cases, the isolated substance is purified to chemical homogeneity; combined separation and analytical methods, such as LC-MS, are chosen to be “orthogonal”achieving their separations based on distinct modes of interaction between substance and isolating matrixto detect a single species in the pure sample. Structure determination refers to the methods to determine the chemical structure of an isolated pure steroid, using an evolving array of chemical and physical methods which have included NMR and small-molecule crystallography.:1019Methods of analysis overlap both of the above areas, emphasizing analytical methods to determining if a steroid is present in a mixture and determining its quantity.